A un click
Fuente: COES 2010
Fuente: Central Bank of Chile Working Papers
During the 1990’s the world experienced a new wave of regional integration agreements (RIAs) that reached unprecedented proportions. In the presence of economies of scale or extent-of-the market effects RIAs may have positive growth effects. I introduce a new measure of regional integration by interacting country membership to a RIA and the partners’ share of world GDP, which allows capturing differentiated effects depending on the size of the partners. Results indicate that RIAs have exerted positive effects on growth. In addition, I find that North North agreements have significant growth effects; South-South agreements have ambiguous effects depending on the size of the countries joining them, and that there is no clear answer for North-South agreements.
Fuente: IZA Discussion Paper No. 11452
There is a consensus in the literature on the relevance of the first 1,000 days since conception in the development of a child’s cognitive and non-cognitive skills. However, little is known of the determinants of these skills at that age, as previous literature has focused on the effect of in utero and early childhood shocks on outcomes at birth or at age 7 and beyond. In this paper, we analyze the impact of prenatal stress on cognitive and non-cognitive development of the child by age 2. By exploiting a longitudinal dataset of children and their parents, we find that children who were exposed in-utero to maternal stress do not have different birth-weight relative to those who were not exposed, yet by age 2, exposed children had a lower level of development, cognition skills, and more attention problems relative to children not exposed to in utero stress.We also find that the negative impacts are observed if in-utero stress occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy. The negative impact on cognitive skills and development is concentrated on lower-income children and attention problems occur among high-income children, and boys suffer lower development and worse attention problems, while girls’ cognition is negatively affected by in-utero stress.
In regions whose industrial structure is organized around one or more large firm corporations, the best practices of small and medium enterprises depend on where firms are located in the supply chain. This paper studies 351 small and medium enterprises in the Antofagasta Region in Chile between 2007 and 2008, where multinational and public mining companies are the drivers of the local economy and the government is promoting the formation of a mining cluster. Structural equation model is used to show that first-tier small and medium enterprise mining suppliers, directly related to large corporations, follow business practices that promote international certification, quality control, and investment in innovation, while in contrast second-tier small and medium enterprises are more focused on avoiding insolvency and client orientation. These results cast doubt on the formation of a mining cluster in the region and suggest the need for differentiated policies in these two groups of small and medium enterprises, especially those related to knowledge transfer.
Chile is one of the most concentrated country in the world. Most of the 40 percent of the population live in the capital city, Santiago, where around 45 percent of the GDP is produced. At the same time, most of the policies promoting welfare are focus on people and they are spatially blind. This paper shows how the current array keeps concentrating people, especially with potential high human capital, around Santiago, and assesses whether this happened for difference in quality of life and opportunities or difference in the quality of the universities. The data available on individuals, who end the high school and take the university admission test, that lets students applying to the university and program that they wish to go, allows identifying the region of origin of the students, the region where the university that they apply is located and where they were selected. Three programs are chosen for this study given the quantity of people that apply to them and because they are available across different cities in the country are pedagogy, engineering and physician. In addition, in Chile they are more than 60 universities, however only the traditional 25 are the one that use this selection system for the period of this study that goes from 2006 to 2009. Recently some new universities have get into the system. Assuming that most of the students end up working around the city where they got the degree, we use an aggregate discrete choice model to develop a methodology that consist in following the destination of the students who got the best scores in the university admission test. Those students can choose any university in the country, and the majority prefers to go to those in the capital city. Contrasting with these results, lower scores have an inverse pattern. When we test if it is explained by the difference in the quality of life between cities versus the differences among the quality of the universities, the former has a larger explanatory power, which bring back the discussion if the policy should be oriented to place or people. It means, that will not be enough focus on increase the quality of the universities across the territories to attract better student to universities outside Santiago. It will need and strong complementary policies making those cities more interesting for the potential high human capital applicant.