A un click
Cities Volume 115, August 2021, 103212
Chicago’s South Side has long been characterized as a “transit desert” – an area with high transit inaccessibility and insufficient infrastructure to meet residents’ needs (Jiao & Dillivan, 2013). Without adequate transit, residents cannot reach employment opportunities or regional amenities – contributing to economic, spatial, and social marginalization. The Chicago Transit Authority’s proposed Red Line Extension (RLE) is designed to connect the city’s far south side neighborhoods to Chicago’s core. Given the scope of the RLE, 175 parcels have been chosen for demolition, meaning that a similar number of households face displacement to make room for the RLE right of way – which may have potentially negative consequences in realizing the subsequent benefits of improved transit access. In this article, we perform an ex-ante analysis of RLE induced displacement. Specifically, we: 1) predict potential location choices that transit displacees are most likely to choose; and 2) analyze these locations in relation to access to transit, amenities, employment, and housing affordability, among others. Within the context of transportation planning, ex-ante analysis is important because it can minimize unintended and negative consequences of transit-induced displacement – like decreased transit access and a loss of potential neighborhood improvements – by predicting potential relocation choices for displacees. Such predicted choices can help planners and decision-makers better understand the trade-offs for directly affected households and thereby allow planners and decision-makers to assist in relocation assistance that maximizes the benefits of the necessarily displaced.
Technology in Society, Volume 63, November 2020, 101432
The Internet has been often described as a tool that fosters the inclusion of traditionally marginalized people in the democratic process. Yet, if the type of device used by people to access the Internet impacts their online democratic engagement, uneven Internet penetration and differences in the devices used by social groups will result in a deeper democratic divide. After discussing the impact of the types of internet use and type of access devices on civic engagement, we postulate 3 hypotheses on how democratic values and type of access to the Internet—place and devices—are related to the civic use of social media. We use data from a Valparaíso Regional poll in Chile in 2017, 2018 and 2019 to test those hypotheses. People who access the Internet via mobile phones are less likely to use social media with a civic purpose, while those who access the Internet at home or work are more likely to do so. Since low-income sectors primarily access the Internet via mobile phones while higher income groups have a wider array of Internet connection options, the rapid growth of cell phone use for accessing the Internet risks deepening social and income gaps in civic engagement.
No existen acuerdos respecto al rol de la accesibilidad monetaria a frutas y verduras frescas (o acceso en general) sobre niveles de obesidad. En este artículo exploramos si es que el acceso a frutas y verduras frescas se relaciona con mejores indicadores biométricos, tales como peso y el índice de masa corporal. Usando propensity score matching, encontramos que los años de educación se relacionan con menores niveles de obesidad, mucho más que el ingreso per cápita del hogar. Nuestros resultados son consistentes tanto cuando analizamos a la población general como cuando tomamos a un subconjunto de agricultores y vendedores de mercados tradicionales, quienes esperamos tengan mayor acceso a frutas y verduras. De esa manera, políticas públicas que se enfoquen en educación más que en aumentar los ingresos de los hogares pueden ser más efectivas en la reducción de índices de obesidad..
Short-term climate conditions may affect crop yields and vintage quality and, as a consequence, wine prices and vineyards’ earnings. In this paper, we use a CGE model for Chile, which incorporates detailed information about the value chain of the wine sector in the country. Using information for the 2015-2016 harvest, we calibrate climate shocks associated with a bad year for the wine industry in Chile, when premature rains occurred in important wine regions, reducing the area harvested and leading to wines with less concentrated flavors, particularly for reds. We model the climate shocks as a technical change in the grape-producing sector (quantity effect). Moreover, we model quality effects as a shift in the foreign demand curve for Chilean wine. Given the specific economic environment in the model and the proposed simulation, it is possible to note the reduction of Chilean real GDP by about 0.067%. By decomposing this result, we verify that the quality effect has a slightly greater weight compared to the quantity effect.
Journal of Regional Research Volume 36, 2016, Pages 233 to 253
Spatial concentration in Latin America, especially in the southern cone, reaches high levels in all dimensions. Despite significant economic growth in the last two decades, trade openness, the return to democratic regimes and reductions in the Gini coefficients the primacy indexes of most Latin American countries remain relatively constant and among the highest in the world. This situationchallenges most regional and urban economics theories that predict a reduction in spatial concentration as development proceeds, after an initial period of concentration. Furthermore, Latin American countries could be trapped in processes of agglomeration without growth. The objective of this article is twofold: first, we describe some characteristics of spatial concentration and its persistence in Latin America with special emphasis in the case of Chile; and second, we propose future research lines related to the need of rebalancing Latin American spatial economies focusing on the importance of institutions as an explanation of the persistence of spatial concentration.
Regional Science, Policy and Practice Volumen 12, Issue 1, 17 February 2020, Pages 5-6
Resources Policy, No. 101812 28 July 2020
As mining activity generally occurs far away from metropolitan areas, governments tend to forget the problems that communities in mining regions face. Centralized government systems and, more importantly, a lack of a robust understanding of the effects of mining impacts on communities and regions, explain in part the lag of development in mining regions and countries. This paper discusses these aspects and introduces eight different papers (comprising the Special Issue: Territorial development and mining in Chile) discussing the impacts that mining activity brings to local economic activity and societal outcomes using the case of Chile, one of the most important mining countries in the world. We conclude this invitation to a territorial turn in the study of mining-based economic development with a set of key research topics we believe would benefit from further research to improve our understanding of the temporal and spatial dynamics between mining activity and development across territories.
Economics & Human Biology Volume 36, 26 december 2019, 100831
We study the relationship between harsh parenting strategies, including psychological and physical aggressions that do not constitute abuse, on early childhood cognitive and socio-emotional development. We estimate a value-added model that controls for a rich set of child, mother, and family characteristics, from a nationally representative sample of Chilean children aged 52–83 months. We find harsh parenting is significantly associated with lower verbal skills (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) of a magnitude of 0.06 standard deviations, and with increased behavioral problems (Child Behavior Check List), by 0.11 standard deviations, including internalization, externalization, and sleep problems. We also find that the more systematic (persistent) harsh parenting is, the stronger the association; the association is similar for boys and girls; reaches its peak at about 5 years of age; and it is stronger for children with less educated mothers.
Research in Higher Education Volume 60, 2 January 2019, pages 931–959
Peer effects are an important contributing factor in the learning process. Most of the prior literature on peer effects focuses on the characteristics of peers rather than examining the structure of peer networks. We attempt to measure not only the impact of peers but also the structure of the peer network. In particular we are interested in the characteristics of students’ study groups along several dimensions: quality, heterogeneity, size and cohesion. Using pre-college characteristics of students and a random assignment into sections in their first year, we construct instruments of the study group measures to control for endogeneity of the network formation. Our OLS and IV estimates suggest that peer quality improves student performance, and that the breadth and cohesion of students’ network positively affects student outcomes. We also find significant heterogeneity of the results depending on network characteristics. Our findings can be used to assist university administrators or professors to choose criteria for sorting students into study groups.
Economía Volumen 42, Issue 84, May 25 2019, Pages 1-8
In this theoretical note, we propose the GProbit model as an alternative to gravity models to estimate grouped-data flows. This is a model based on the random utility theory, which is consistent with the principle of population behavior. Instead of migrant counts, the dependent variable of the GProbit model of flows consists of a number of observed proportions. It allows explaining the propensity to migrate from any origin to a destination, which is an interesting relative concept not affected by the size effect. For this reason, it is expected to have better fit and less problems of non-normality, as illustrated by an application for the internal migration flows of the Spanish regions.
Small Business Economics, 6 February 2020
The current surge in forced migration to Europe is probably the largest and most complex since the Second World War. As population ageing accelerates and fertility falls below replacement level, immigration may be seen as a key component of human capital to address labor and skill shortages. Receiving countries are, however, hesitant about the contribution that forced migrants can make to the local economy. Coupled with increasing pressure on welfare services, they are associated with increased job competition and crime. Underutilization of immigrants’ skills is, however, a waste of resources that countries can scarcely afford. Understanding the labor market integration process of forced migrants is thus critical to develop policies that unleash their full skills potential and ultimately foster local economic productivity. While prior studies have examined the employment and salary outcomes of these immigrants at a particular point in time post-migration, they have failed to capture the temporal dynamics and complexity of this process. Drawing on administrative data from Sweden, we examine the career pathways of forced migrants using sequence analysis from their arrival in 1991 through to 2013.
Grow and Change Volume 50, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages 1532-1567
This paper examines the business cycle co‐movement in Mexican states over the period 2000–2014 by estimating an extended gravitational panel data model. Two different de‐trending filters are used to check the robustness of our results. The estimates suggest that the co‐movement increases as the size of the states’ economies does so as well as with the productive structure similarities and the relative level of development; however, the co‐movement decreases at a diminishing rate with geographical distance. There is also evidence of time‐dependent effects. In addition, the existence of moderate co‐movements among the states’ cycles suggests that common economic policies may not be suitable for all states, which implies there is a need for specific countercyclical policies to mitigate idiosyncratic shocks.
Journal of Regional Science Volume 60, Issue 1, 30 April 2019, Pages 33-55
Studies of open school policies predict house prices to rise in areas that gain access to high‐quality schools. However, excess demand may limit access to high‐quality schools. We take advantage of changes in Chicago’s schools’ admissions policies to test whether a higher probability of admission to magnet schools for students living within 1.5 miles leads to higher house prices. Results indicate that the 1997 and 2009 reforms increased house prices for homes within the 1.5 mile radius by about 4% and 12.6%, respectively. The higher probability of admission for black students after a consent decree was vacated in 2009 led to a significant increase in prices in predominantly African‐American areas on the south side.
Complexity Volume 2019, Article ID 7490640, 25 July 2019, 18 pages
Using a unique data set with all the daily transactions from the Santiago Stock Exchange, we develop a novel methodology that combines a network decomposition with a spatial econometrics technique to study how brokers’ characteristics and trading decisions may affect the stock market return. We present suggestive evidence of a mechanism by which structural changes of the transaction network between brokers affect the aggregate returns of the stock market. We find that brokers tend to trade with counterparties with dissimilar intraday selling volume when market return significantly increases. Moreover, brokers with a research department tend to sell to brokers without a research department when the market experiences a considerable increase of its return. From the financial perspective, these results highlight new ways in which intermediaries may affect market equilibrium and the efficiency of the market.
Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences Volume 11, 30 August 2018 pages 343–359
This paper investigates the hypothesis that the spatial concentration of economic activity might impair national growth, using the experiences of Brazil and Chile. In the first stage we have used regional data to estimate country-specific models in which regional growth is conditioned by a set of controls, considering population density as a measure of concentration. The results of this stage show that population density has a negative effect on the growth of Brazilian and Chilean regions. In the second stage we have simulated the impact of the actual changes in population observed in the regions within these countries between 1980 and 2010. Using the new densities, we have recalculated the growth of the regions, generating a new national growth rate as a weighted average of the estimated growth of the regional economies. The regional deconcentration observed in Brazil produced less negative results in terms of national growth. While the Chilean increasing spatial concentration resulted in negative effects for national growth: the national GDP growth rate was reduced by 0.8% on a yearly basis. These results replicate the findings of Brülhart and Sbergami (J Urb Econ 65:48–63, 2009) for Brazil and Chile in their cross-section of countries. Working with regional data within the countries allowed determine the gains/losses in the national GDP growth rate, and to point out the effects on each region within the countries.
The North American Journal of Economics and Finance Volume 44, April 2018, Pages 278-288
The aim of this paper is to identify the explaining factors of the synchronization of the business cycles of the Mexican states and those of the US economy. The cycle indicator is obtained by de-trending the series of total formal employment (Mexican states) and nonfarm employment and industrial production (US). In general, our panel data model estimations suggest the existence of spatial autocorrelation and significant time-period fixed effects. Also, the estimates indicate a significant and positive effect of the ratio of foreign direct investment to gross domestic product (GDP), which may be supplementing the impact of international trade (driven by the most internationally integrated states) and a negative effect of the ratio of remittances to GDP (driven by less integrated states). Finally, the evidence suggests that more similar productive structures yield more synchronized business cycles.